Quote from the Text

“School bells were introduced to emulate factory bells, in order to mentally prepare children for their future careers.”

The End of Average by Todd Rose, p. 51 citing An Underground History of American Education by John Taylor Gatto, p. 222

Fact Check

It appears that Rose is referring to this line from Gatto, “Bells would ring and just as with Pavlov’s salivating dog, children would shift out of their seats and lurch toward yet another class.” There is, though, no mention of future careers. Gatto appears to be referencing the work of William A. Wirt in Gary, Indiana. A 1916 guide to the Platoon Plan used by districts across the country laid out how the plan might work and included the following quote, “Still another necessity is a good automatic signal system for the special rooms. As pupils move to and from the regular rooms only once in the middle of each session, the usual building signals will do for these rooms. A complete set of automatic signals for all rooms is better.” There is no reference to bells or future careers.

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